No name

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 CVL

Date range:

1972-2006

Description

Most of this collection relates specifically to the Notting Hill Carnival in London with the exception of one part of the collection, titled The Politics, History, Art and Culture of Carnival, that relates more to Carnival in the Caribbean, especially in Trinidad, as well as to Carnival elsewhere in the world and Carnival as a general art form.

The collection comprises of the following sections:

CVL/1 Notting Hill Carnival Organisations
Correspondence, minutes and press reports relating to four Carnival organisations. This breaks down into the following series -

CVL/1/1 The Association for a People's Carnival (APC)
CVL/1/2 The Notting Hill International Carnival Committee
CVL/1/3 The Notting Hill Carnival and Arts Committee
CVL/1/4 The Notting Hill Carnival Support Group

CVL/2 Notting Hill Carnival Bands
Publicity material, correspondence, administrative documents, newsletters, publications and a costume relating to two Carnival bands. This breaks down into the following series -

CVL/2/1 The People's War Carnival Band
CVL/2/2 Lion Youth

CVL/3 Notting Hill Carnival Media and Publicity
Flyers, programmes and invitations from bands and other groups involved with Carnival, as well as press cuttings and magazines about Carnival. This breaks down into the following series -

CVL/3/1 General Publicity
CVL/3/2 1978 Carnival
CVL/3/3 Press Cuttings
CVL/3/4 Magazines

CVL/4/ The Politics, History, Art and Culture of Carnival
Items relating to the history of Carnival, especially in Trinidad; to the musical forms that developed with Carnival, especially steelband and pan music, Calypso and Kaiso and to the politics of Carnival, especially in the UK. This breaks down into the following series -

CVL/4/1 Carnival in Trinidad
CVL/4/2 Articles on the Meaning, Politics and Culture of Carnival

Admin history:

This collection has two distinct but interrelated parts: the first 3 sub-fonds (CVL/1-CVL/3) relate to Notting Hill Carnival in London, with particular emphasis on the organisations and bands formed by John La Rose's sons, Michael and Keith La Rose.The last sub-fonds (CVL/4) reflects both John and Michael La Rose's interest in the history and culture of Carnival, especially in Trinidad. The collection has largely been kept as it was found.
 
Under the first sub-fonds, Notting Hill Carnival Organisations (CVL/1), there are substantial administrative items, letters and publications relating to the Association for a People's Carnival (APC) and the Notting Hill International Carnival Committee, both of which were formed in the autumn of 1989 as a response to the organisation and policing of the 1989 Carnival. Michael La Rose and the People's War Carnival Band were very active in the formation of both of these organisations. There is also some material relating to the Notting Hill Carnival and Arts Committee and the Notting Hill Carnival Support Group.
 
Under the second sub-fonds, Notting Hill Carnival Bands (CVL/2), there is substantial material relating to The People's War Carnival Band, which was formed by Michael and Keith La Rose in 1983. There is also material relating to the band Lion Youth, formed in 1977. Members of both bands knew each other. 
 
The third sub-fonds, Notting Hill Carnival Media and Publicity (CVL/3), mostly contains press cuttings about Carnival, with particular emphasis on the 1978 Carnival and the 1989 Carnival. The 1989 cuttings were collected by John and Michael La Rose and others as part of their response to the policing of the 1989 Carnival. Some of these cuttings were published in the Association for a People's Carnival report titled Police Carnival 1989. There is also some publicity material from various years relating to other Carnival bands and to Carnival in general.
 
The title of the fourth sub-fonds, The Politics, History, Art and Culture of Carnival (CVL/4), comes from John La Rose and reflects his interest in the history of Carnival, especially in Trinidad, and in the musical forms that developed with Carnival, especially steelband and pan music, Calypso and Kaiso. The collection is wide-ranging, containing academic and journalistic articles, as well as more political publications and transcripts written by Carnival practitioners. Whilst a number of the items relate specifically to Trinidad, there are also articles about Carnival as a general art form and about specific Carnivals in other countries, including Notting Hill Carnival in the UK.

Custodial History:

Collection gifted mainly by John La Rose with some material coming from Michael La Rose. This collection is accruing.

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 PPK

Date range:

1975-1998

Description

The material collected in this catalogue concerns the work of the Committee for the Release of Political Prisoners in Kenya (CRPPK), a London-based organisation established on 2 July 1982 and coordinated by John La Rose from New Beacon's Stroud Green address. The Committee emerged as a response to evidence of increasingly repressive tendencies in the Kenyan government under President Daniel Arap Moi, promising to act as a 'solidarity organisation' for those arrested, detained or harassed for their political activities in Kenya. The CRPPK was committed to exposing Moi's 'systematic attacks on intellectual, political and cultural life' to an international audience, focusing broadly on the struggles of 'lecturers, students, writers, lawyers, peasants, workers and members of parliament'. It continued its campaign work throughout the 1980s and into the 1990s, publishing the influential Kenya News bulletin and coordinating with other Kenyan democratic and solidarity movements abroad. Aside from compiling materials on CRPPK campaigns and events, this collection also gathers documents for groups like the London-based UMOJA-Kenya and the underground organisation Mwakenya, the latter working against Moi's Kenya African National Union (KANU) government inside Kenya itself.

The collection contents are as follows:

PPK Series 01: Committee for the Release of Political Prisoners in Kenya (CRPPK)
- PPK/01/01: Releases and Statements (including: Campaign Letters; Press Releases and Briefings; Draft Statements);
- PPK/01/02: Meeting Minutes;
- PPK/01/03: Administrative Materials;
- PPK/01/04: Correspondence;
- PPK/01/05: Kenya News (including: Published Issues; Research Materials);
- PPK/01/06: Pamphlets;
- PPK/01/07: Events;
- PPK/01/08: Large-Size Posters.

PPK Series 02: Non-CRPPK Organisations
- PPK/02/01: Umoja-Kenya Documents and Press Releases;
- PPK/02/02: MWAKENYA Documents and Press Releases;
- PPK/02/03: UKenya (London);
- PPK/02/04: Kenyan United Front for Democracy (London);
- PPK/02/05: Africa Centre (London);
- PPK/02/06: Committee for Human Rights in Kenya (New York);
- PPK/02/07: Organisation for Democracy in Kenya (Stockholm);
- PPK/02/08: Amnesty International;
- PPK/02/09: University of Dar es Salaam - Statements on Kenya;
- PPK/02/10: December Twelve Movement (Kenya).

PPK Series 03: Non-CRPPK Campaigns and Events
- PPK/03/01: The Trial of Dedan Kimathi (Play);
- PPK/03/02: Postcard Campaign for Political Prisoners;
- PPK/03/03: Unity Conference (London 1987);
- PPK/03/04: One Million Signature Campaign (London 1991);
- PPK/03/05: Sabasaba Protest Anniversary (London 1991);
- PPK/03/06: Petitions and Public Appeals;
- PPK/03/07: Large-Size Posters.

PPK Series 04: Detention Materials
- PPK/04/01: Detention of Ngugi wa Thiong'o;
- PPK/04/02: Detention of Wanyiri Kihoro;
- PPK/04/03: Detention of Koigi wa Wamwere;
- PPK/04/04: Detention of Maina wa Kinyatti.

PPK Series 05: Press and Media
- PPK/05/01: Clippings - Kenya Repression and Arrests;
- PPK/05/02: Clippings - Kenya State Politics;
- PPK/05/03: Clippings - Kenya Economy;
- PPK/05/04: Clippings - Kenya Health and Society;
- PPK/05/05: Clippings - Kenya Arts and Culture;
- PPK/05/06: Clippings - Kenya Coup Attempt (1982);
- PPK/05/07: Newsmagazine Materials;
- PPK/05/08: The Weekly Review.

PPK Series 06: Publications
- PPK/06/01: Academic Articles;
- PPK/06/02: Published Texts;
- PPK/06/03: Tourism.

Admin history:

The Committee for the Release of Political Prisoners in Kenya (CRPPK) was a London-based campaign group founded on 2 July 1982 and coordinated by John La Rose from New Beacon's Stroud Green Address. While most active during the 1980s, its work continued well into the 1990s: indeed, the government of Daniel Arap Moi - against which the CRPPK directed its activities - remained in power in Kenya until 2002. The CRPPK defined itself as a response to the repressive and dictatorial tendencies of Moi's Kenya African National Union (KANU) government, promising to act as a 'solidarity organisation' for those arrested, detained or harassed for their political activities in Kenya. The CRPPK was committed to exposing KANU's 'systematic attacks on intellectual, political and cultural life' to an international audience, focusing broadly on the struggles of 'lecturers, students, writers, lawyers, peasants, workers and members of parliament'.
 
The establishment of the CRPPK in July 1982 was preceded shortly by a June 1982 amendment to the Kenyan constitution, which transformed the de facto condition of one-party rule in the country into an official, de jure one-party state. KANU had been the sole political party operating in Kenya since independence from British rule in 1963, but this situation would now be secured by law.  
 
The pre-history of the CRPPK can be linked, moreover, to earlier controversies under the government of Moi's predecessor, the celebrated nationalist leader Jomo Kenyatta: in particular, the arrest of the writer Ngugi wa Thiong'o on 31 December 1977 and his detention in Kamiti Maximum Security Prison for a year without charge. Ngugi had recently published a novel ('Petals of Blood') critical of neo-colonial tendencies in post-colonial Kenya, and was also overseeing the production of his play 'Ngaahika Ndeenda' (I Will Marry When I Want) in an open air peasant and worker's theatre in Limuru. He was arrested on New Year's Eve under 'Public Security Regulations' and Ngaahika Ndeenda was banned. By January 1978, Amnesty International had adopted Ngugi as a 'Prisoner of Conscience' and appeals for his release were made across the world. The writer would remain in prison, however, until the end of the year; continued harassment from government officials after his release and fear of a plot against his life led Ngugi to leave Kenya for exile in the United Kingdom. His presence in London from 1982 allowed him to be an important interlocutor for the CRPPK. (See especially PPK/04/01).
 
Daniel Arap Moi, who had been Kenyatta's Vice-President, became the head of state following Kenyatta's death in August 1978, carrying on his predecessor's style of governing and particularly his committed anticommunism. Early documents following the CRPPK foundation in 1982 describe a 'new wave' of arrests unfolding in Kenya since May of that year: in June, notably, the Kenyatta University history lecturer Maina wa Kinyatti was arrested and subsequently jailed for 6 years for 'possession of seditious publications' (see PPK/04/04). The CRPPK would announce in these early days a picket to be held outside the Kenyan High Commission in London on 30 July 1982, protesting specifically the decision to grant territory in Kenya to the United States for the purpose of establishing military bases.
 
The scene would change dramatically following an attempted coup against Moi's rule led by members of the Kenyan Air Force on 1 August 1982: the rebellion was quashed ruthlessly by government military and police forces, and a good deal of the subsequent repression was directed at students from the University of Nairobi who had supported the coup. The panic prompted by the Air Force's short-lived putsch presented Moi with the opportunity to change the legal system in Kenya: the aftermath of the coup was characterized by mass detentions without trial, hurried court proceedings, death sentences, enormous jail terms, the routine confiscation of passports and ever more intrusive immigration controls. Evidence of the emboldened repressive tendencies of the KANU regime prompted the nascent CRPPK to action, and a series of pamphlets, events and letter campaigns in the collection refer directly to the coup and its aftermath. 
 
The CRPPK focused its attention on the detention of several key opposition figures during this time: see, for instance, the file on Koigi wa Wamwere, an 'outspoken' member of the Kenyan parliament arrested in August 1982 while acting representative for Nakuru North. Wamwere was detained previously for three years under the Kenyatta government, and imprisoned again here without trial, released only in 1984 while maintaining he had no involvement with the coup (see PPK/04/03). The mass arrest of students and especially student politicians became a feature of life after the coup: several individuals were charged with sedition, for instance, after being accused of 'rejoicing' having heard news of the coup. This sequence and the regular deployment of riot police on Nairobi campuses is traced across several CRPPK pamphlets: see, in particular, 'Repression Intensifies in Kenya Since the August 1st Coup Attempt' (January 1983); 'University Destroyed: Moi Crowns Ten Years of Government Terror in Kenya' (May 1983). (PPK/01/06). 
 
Throughout the 1980s members of the CRPPK met regularly in London, and a comprehensive collection of meeting minutes and campaign agendas for the decade are included in PPK/01/02. Of particular concern was the publication of the CRPPK's official bulletin, Kenya News, which was circulated widely as an authoritative, uncensored voice on current events in Kenya. The bulletin drew on vast amounts of research completed by John La Rose and other affiliates of the CRPPK, the breadth of which is partially revealed in the 'Press and Media' (PPK/05) series of the collection. Here, hundreds of news clippings trace countless individual arrests and detentions, as well as issues related to the state, law, economy, public health and culture.  All issues of Kenya News - bar Issue 6 - are included in PPK/01/05/. 
 
The CRPPK was joined in its work by a number of campaign organisations around the world. This global conversation is traced in the collection, which includes materials on bodies as diverse as the New York-based Committee for Human Rights in Kenya and the Stockholm-based Organisation for Democracy in Kenya (see PPK/02). International solidarity work is reflected importantly in the foundation of UMOJA in 1987, emerging as a union of seven Kenyan political organisations working abroad and aiming to present a platform of unity against the KANU government. UMOJA's membership was spread across the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Denmark, Italy, Norway, and Sweden, with a Central Secretariat based in London. In Britain, UMOJA absorbed the organisation UKenya, whose chair Yusuf Hassan would continue as acting coordinator for the new organisation. Hassan would be succeeded in this role first by Ngugi and later by Abdillatif Abdalla.
 
From its 1987 beginnings, UMOJA expressed solidarity with the dissident group Mwakenya ('Union of Patriots for the Liberation of Kenya'), an organisation established in Nairobi in 1985 and working clandestinely for political change in Kenya. Mwakenya traced its origins to the 1982 coup via a series of progressive cells and particularly the underground newspaper Mpatanishi. It described itself as 'a democratic party of the workers, peasants, progressive intelligentsia and all the patriotic Kenyans fighting for the interests of the oppressed, exploited and humiliated majority of the people in all the nationalities of Kenya.' The group's draft minimum programme (1987), as well as the later 'Democracy Plank' (1990), is included in PPK/02/02. President Moi's anxiety over Mwakenya is reflected in several arrests made over supposed 'oaths' given to the secret organisation, and indeed the more general labelling of any opponent to the KANU regime as a member of Mwakenya (whether or not such a connection actually existed). The spectre of Mwakenya became, arguably, as politically productive as the group's actual activities. 
 
Aside from Mwakenya, materials on the December Twelve Movement (DTM) and their organ Pambana appear in the PPK collection. The group's name referring to the date of Kenya's independence from British rule (12 December 1963), the DTM called for radical change in Kenya from the early 1980s: Shiraz Durrani was an active member. The group's mouthpiece, Pambana, first appeared in May 1982, promising to 'unite the poor and the exploited against the Kenyan ruling class and their foreign masters'. It is within such rhetoric - both domestically in Kenya and abroad - that the figure of Dedan Kemathi becomes important. Kimathi was the iconic leader of the Mau Mau uprising against colonial rule in the 1950s, hanged for his activities in 1957, and his image recurs in the struggle against Moi as a demonstration of courage in the face of repression. In the 1970s, Ngugi authored a play on the 'Trial of Dedan Kimathi', the production of which becomes an important element of mobilization abroad: see, especially, PPK/03/01. Other events organised by solidarity groups outside Kenya, including the CRPPK, take as their object the celebration of Kimathi's birth anniversary.
 
It is clear from this collection that the CRPPK's campaign strategy was varied in its methods: there appear, at once, informative pamphlets, polemical press releases, incisive bulletins, and calls to the picket line, alongside advertisements for public discussions and cultural events. Many documents reflect the CRPPK's emphasis on a letter-writing appeal to the Kenyan High Commission in London and indeed to President Moi's office in Kenya itself. Gus John, one of the founders of GPI and a long-time comrade of La Rose, recalls an anecdote regarding the barrage of letters said to be continually arriving in Moi's office. According the story, Moi was heard to exclaim in frustration about the Trinidad-born La Rose: 'What does this descendent of slaves know about Kenyan affairs and about Africa?' An ambitious aide apparently interjected: 'Why don't you have him arrested?' (See Gus John's 8 April 2006 Memorial Lecture to La Rose online at:  http://www.georgepadmoreinstitute.org/node/108)
 
The PPK collection presents the documentary history of a truly international movement, binding together campaigners, exiles, prisoners, international bodies and underground organisations across the world on the issue of repression and tyranny in Kenyan politics. The reader will find a wealth of information in correspondence and pamphlets, but also a rich archive in posters, adverts and clippings from the press. The collection follows the career of organisations - like UMOJA or Mwakenya - but also dwells on singular events and individual campaigns, such as the exile Wanyiri Kihoro's One Million Signature Campaign in 1991, or the Sabasaba Protest Anniversary organised in London the same year. Insight is provided into African diaspora politics in London, such as those related to the Africa Centre, London WC2, as well as relations between local politics and supranational organisations like Amnesty International and International PEN (Poets, Essayists and Novelists).

Custodial History:

This material has been gifted to the George Padmore Institute by John La Rose. 

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 AME

Date range:

1960-2006

Description

The following material is taken from, or relates to, the National Antiracist Movement in Education (1985-2004) otherwise known as NAME, and the organisations which preceded it, dating back to the 1960s. NAME was a voluntary organisation solely concerned with race equality and schooling. Its origins can be traced to c.1965 with the birth of ATEPO - the Association(s) of Teachers of English to Pupils from Overseas. In Spring 1969, individual ATEPOs came together to form the Federation of ATEPOs (FATEPO). The name was then changed to the Association(s) for the Education of Pupils from Overseas [keeping the same ATEPO acronym].
In 1973 a group from the Federation created the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME) following concerns from members that the Association was not participating sufficiently in national affairs. The change was also aimed at increasing financial stability. The structure grew to become London NAME overseeing several regional branches, around 40 in number by March 1983.
In 1984, NAME changed its title to the National Antiracist Movement in Education [keeping the same acronym] in order to focus more specifically on racism in society and the education system. This was seen by some as a controversial move, sparking a debate between multiculturalism and antiracism and may have contributed to the steady decline in membership from over 1500 members in England, Wales and Scotland in the early 1980s to less than 100 by the year 2000. Because of the decline in membership, NAME formed itself into a smaller, centrally led pressure group during the 1990s, responding to government papers, OFSTED publications and similar. A decision was taken to close NAME down in 2004, leaving a few members to complete a survey of Race Equality Policies in Schools (commenced March 2004 and published 2006).

The collection comprises:

AME/1: Administration and Correspondence
AME/1/1: Joint Work: NUT Meetings and Administration
AME/1/2: Correspondence and Communications
AME/1/3: General Administration
AME/1/4: Membership

AME/2: Meetings and Briefings
AME/2/1: ATEPO Minutes
AME/2/2: NAME [National Association for Multiracial Education] Minutes
AME/2/3: NAME [National Antiracist Movement in Education] Executive Committee Papers

AME/3: AGMs and Conferences
AME/3/1: NAME AGMs and Conferences
AME/3/2: Other Conferences

AME/4: Reports, Responses and Consultation
AME/4/1: Responses to Government and Other Papers
AME/4/2: NAME Fieldwork
AME/4/3: Statements, Policies and Evidence

AME/5: ATEPO and NAME Publications
AME/5/1: ATEPO and NAME Journals and Newsletters
AME/5/2: Handbooks
AME/5/3: Branch Publications
AME/5/4: Other NAME Publications

AME/6: Regional Branches
AME/6/1: Hounslow

AME/7: Related Material
AME/7/1: External Publications
AME/7/2: Various Journals and Papers
AME/7/3: Gloucestershire County Council Education Department

AME/8: NAMERAP - NAME Research and Archive Programme

Admin history:

Summary:
The following material is taken from, or relates to, the National Antiracist Movement in Education (1985-2004) otherwise known as NAME, and the organisations which preceded it, dating back to the 1960s. NAME was a voluntary organisation solely concerned with race equality and schooling. Its origins can be traced to c.1965 with the birth of ATEPO - the Association(s) of Teachers of English to Pupils from Overseas. In Spring 1969, individual ATEPOs came together to form the Federation of ATEPOs (FATEPO). The name was then changed to the Association(s) for the Education of Pupils from Overseas [keeping the same ATEPO acronym]. 
In 1973 a group from the Federation created the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME) following concerns from members that the Association was not participating sufficiently in national affairs. The change was also aimed at increasing financial stability. The structure grew to become London NAME overseeing several regional branches, around 40 in number by March 1983. 
In 1984, NAME changed its title to the National Antiracist Movement in Education [keeping the same acronym] in order to focus more specifically on racism in society and the education system. This was seen by some as a controversial move, sparking a debate between multiculturalism and antiracism and may have contributed to the steady decline in membership from over 1500 members in England, Wales and Scotland in the early 1980s to less than 100 by the year 2000. Because of the decline in membership, NAME formed itself into a smaller, centrally led pressure group during the 1990s, responding to government papers, OFSTED publications and similar. A decision was taken to close NAME down in 2004, leaving a few members to complete a survey of Race Equality Policies in Schools (commenced March 2004 and published 2006).
Between 1971-2006 ATEPO and NAME produced a number of national publications, including a set of ATEPO booklets, 7 NAME handbooks, Teacher Education (1984), NAME on Swann (1985), Antiracist Education in White Areas: Conference Report (1987) and Race Equality Policies in Schools (2006). Four journals were issued: English for Immigrants (1967-1971); Multiracial School (1971-1978); NAME: New Approaches to Multiracial Education (1978-1980); and Multiracial Education (1980-1985) plus the newsletter ARENA: Anti-Racist Education News (1984-2004).
 
An overview of each organisation is given below:
 
ATEPO: the Association(s) of Teachers of English to Pupils from Overseas (1965-1969)/ the Association(s) for the Education of Pupils from Overseas (1969-1973):
 
For a detailed history of ATEPO, see the following documents:
The Work of ATEPO by Hugh Boulter (1971), (AME/5/2/1). 
For an assessment of the future of ATEPO written in 1973, see the journal Multiracial School Vol. 2 No. 2 (Spring 1973): p.35-38 (AME/5/1/2).
 
Foundation and Development of ATEPO: 
ATEPO began as a grass roots organisation in the mid 1960s. The London and Birmingham branches of ATEPO were formed c.1965 and have been described as "two of the largest conurbations....where the pressure of immigrant children first stimulated teachers to get together and discuss ways of meeting their new found problems" (The Work of ATEPO by Hugh Boulter, Leeds 1971 p.3 - AME/5/2/1). The addresses (Secretaries) for six Associations are listed in the first issue of the ATEPO journal English for Immigrants (Summer 1967): Bedford, Birmingham (Midlands), Bradford (West Riding), Coventry, Derby and London. Slough is mentioned in the news section. 
On 18 November 1967, members from Huddersfield, Birmingham, Bradford, Coventry, Derby and London attended a meeting at Bishop Lonsdale College in Derby where a decision was made to bring individual ATEPOs into a federal structure called the National Federation of Associations for the Teaching of English to Pupils from Overseas (FATEPO). The National Federation met three times a year (Spring, Summer and Autumn terms) and also published the English for Immigrants journal (AME/5/1/1).
Details about the newly formed FATEPO and also ATEFL (Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language) can be found in English for Immigrants Issue 2 Spring 1968 (AME/5/1/1). 
 
On 19 April 1969, the first conference of the National Federation was held in Walsall, followed on 3 May by an AGM in Birmingham where the Federation Constitution was ratified and the name of the Federation changed to the National Federation of Associations for the Education of Pupils from Overseas [keeping the same ATEPO acronym]. For further details, see English for Immigrants Vol. 2 Issue 3 Summer 1969 (AME/5/1/1). This change came about because of concerns over the use of the word 'English':
 "Some members feel that a very misleading idea of the functions of the various ATEPOs, and of this Journal, is given by stressing the language aspects of our interests to the exclusion of wider educational concerns." (English for Immigrants Vol. 2 No. 1 Autumn 1968 - AME/5/1/1).
The change of name was "simply a clearer indication to those outside the Associations of the continuing breadth of interests: it is intended to provide an umbrella title under which existing local ATEPOs may continue as 'Teachers of English' or not, as they wish, and to which new groups may affiliate under any label they choose" (English for Immigrants Vol. 2 No. 3 Summer 1969 - AME/5/1/1)
In 1971, Hugh Boulter comments that "[the] Association still remains, and one hopes always will remain, concerned with teaching English to non-English speaking pupils. Its field, however, is constantly widening - hence the change in name - and there has been a move more recently to become more generally concerned with the social as well as the strictly educational aspects of immigration." (The Work of ATEPO by Hugh Boulter 1971 p.3. - AME/5/2/1).
Between November 1968 and November 1971, the number of Associations grew significantly from 11 to 20. This was the result of an expansion programme which included a series of 1 day courses titled School and Community in areas unrepresented by ATEPO. More courses were planned for 1972-73. However, the positive expansion brought with it administrative problems and a rise in Secretarial and Executive expenses. 
A working party on the re-organisation of ATEPO was set up after the annual conference in Walsall in December 1972 to address a number of concerns. Members felt that the Association was not participating sufficiently in national affairs, although records show that ATEPO was already in contact with the Schools Council, the DES and unions such as the NUT. The Association was being given national responsibility but it was operating from a local base with insufficient administrative and financial support. The DES supported ATEPO with an annual grant of £500 for 3 years but this was due to run out in 1973.
It was noted that the source of income from subscription payments was poor as individual membership was low - about 150 members, compared with 85 institutional members - despite high turnout at meetings. ATEPO did not therefore have sufficient money coming in to sustain itself into the future.
The journal Multiracial School Vol. 2 No. 2 p.35-38 Spring 1973 (AME/5/1/2) gives a detailed assessment of the future of ATEPO and the option of changing its constitution from a Federation to a National Association. See below for details on the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME).
 
Membership of ATEPO:
Members of the Association represented different sections of education including infant, junior and secondary school teachers, lecturers and college students. ATEPO also looked outside of the classroom, encouraging advisers, administrators and Education Welfare Officers - essentially anyone working directly with students from overseas - to become members.
 
Aims and Objectives of ATEPO:
The Objects of Federation ratified at the AGM in Birmingham on 3 May 1969 were as follows:
"to co-ordinate the activities of the local Associations
to disseminate information
to promote interest in the education of pupils from overseas
to offer advice and services to, and co-operate with, other professional and educational organisations, Local Education Authorities, and Government bodies wherever possible
to provide opportunities for teachers to learn of and to develop new methods appropriate to multi-racial classes
to safeguard the interests of such pupils" (AME/2/1/1)
 
Journals issued by ATEPO: 
English for Immigrants (1967-1971): (AME/5/1/1)
Issued 3 times a year (Spring, Summer and Autumn) and published by the Oxford University Press. The first issue, dated Summer 1967, is described in the Editorial as "a development of the Bulletin produced by the London Association of Teachers of English to Pupils from Overseas at the beginning of this year" [1967] (Euan Reid, editor). The journal was to be "a national publication in which could appear news and information, accounts of good teaching practice, reviews of books and materials on the teaching of English to immigrants as well as on the relevant educational and social background" (Editorial - AME/5/1/1). 
 
Multiracial School (1971-1978): (AME/5/1/2)
Issued 3 times a year (Spring, Summer and Autumn terms). The first issue is dated Autumn 1971. Editor: Alan James. Published by Oxford University Press. NB: This journal continues under the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME) (see below). 
 
 
National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME) (1973-1984):
 
Development of the National Association for Multiracial Education:
A change came in 1973 when a group from ATEPO created the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME). The decision was largely financial. Writing in December 1972, the Working Party on Reorganisation of ATEPO put forward 2 options: to seek annual grants from bodies such as the DES, or to revise subscriptions to make the Association self-sustaining. The latter was considered the best way forward so that the Association could become more independent and thus play a full part in national affairs as a free agent. "Whether we like it or not the issues that are relevant to our members and to the society that we are involved in promoting - a multi-cultural one - are inevitably controversial (West Indian children in ESN schools, testing, Ugandan resettlement). Any financial attachment is likely to be an embarrassment" (Working Party on Reorganisation of ATEPO (AME/2/1/1). 
Writing in Multiracial School Vol. 3 No. 1 Summer 1974, Alan James speaks of the association as:
"[having] achieved the objectives set at the Walsall conference in 1972, being transformed into an effective national organisation which can and should have a real influence at national and local levels - relying not on publicity-winning shock tactics, but on the pressure that can be exerted by people with experience, a wide range of expertise, and commitment to persist." (AME/5/1/2). 
The structure grew to become London NAME overseeing several regional Branches, around 40 in number by March 1983. NAME was primarily concerned with assisting teachers and advisors working in multiracial and multicultural environments, whether inside or outside the classroom. The Association provided information through publications and journals plus created opportunities to discuss and debate issues at local events and national conferences, held annually. NAME also lobbied local and national governments on issues of importance in the field of multiracial education. NAME worked with or alongside bodies such as ARTEN [Anti Racist Teacher Education Network] and NATE [National Association for the Teaching of English] in the development of courses and materials. 
The focal points of NAME were language skills, especially the use of mother-tongue as a medium of instruction; the curriculum and qualifications; the provision of and access to Teacher Education courses; monitoring employment in the Education Service; and ensuring access by teachers and parents to advice and information.
The organisation received no long-term financial support from central government or from local authority resources. Limited financial support in the form of grants, some from the DES, mostly covered the cost of producing publications. A three year grant from the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust led to the appointment of the first full-time General Secretary, Madeleine Blakeley, in 1978. Two fieldworkers, the Birmingham fieldworker Chris Orford and the national Fieldworker, Mary Baker, were funded by the Inner City Partnership and a grant from the CRE respectively (News of Name issue 1, Mar 1983 - AME/5/4/1). The National Association was financially dependent on the branches and each branch was asked to contribute a percentage of its annual subscription income. Between 1983 and 1984, a new charitable Trust called the National Council for Research and Development in Multiracial Education was planned, to be launched Spring 1985. This was sponsored by NAME in order to achieve charitable status (NAME was not a charity because of its campaigning role). The plan was to employ a fieldworker from Spring 1985 onwards to establish the Trust on a firm footing but grant applications to the Commission for Racial Equality failed due to a lack of available funds.
 
Membership of the National Association for Multiracial Education:
There were 4 types of membership under NAME: full (individual); student; institutional; and affiliate. Annual conferences were attended by up to 200 members and by the early 1980s there were more than 1500 members spread across England, Wales and Scotland. 
 
Aims and Objectives of the National Association for Multiracial Education: 
The general aim of NAME was "to play an active role in making the changes required in the education system which will further the development of a just multi-racial society."
The following aims were set out in the new constitution and ratified at Edgehill College of Education in Ormskirk on 14 April 1973:
"a) to encourage and co-ordinate the efforts of individual members working in education within a multi-racial society.
b) enable its membership to express its collective viewpoint on local and national affairs which relate to a multi-racial society
c) promote the teaching and development of language throughout the education system
d) ensure that full attention is given to the needs of linguistically disadvantaged children irrespective of nationality or origin
e) influence the curriculum of schools to reflect the multi-racial and multi-cultural aspects of our society
f) promote the interests of all children attending multi-racial schools"
 
However, by 1980, there are signs that the Association is beginning to reconsider its aims and objectives. A promotional leaflet c.1980 (AME/5/4/1) suggests that 
 "Minority ethnic groups are at a disadvantage in such areas of life as employment, housing and education". Moreover, "in spite of the efforts of many individuals working within it, the present education system tends to perpetuate injustice rather than to eliminate it ..." In May 1983, we find an announcement that the Aims leaflet has been rewritten (News of NAME - issue 2 May 1983 (AME/5/4/1). NAME now describes itself as follows:
"The National Association for Multiracial Education recognises the fact that racism both individual and institutional pervades all social, political and economic aspects of this country ... NAME, therefore, is an anti-racist organisation ..." (AME 5/4/1). Although issued under the National Association for Multiracial Education in May 1983, these rewritten aims underpin the National Antiracist Movement in Education (see below). 
 
Journals issued by the National Association for Multiracial Education:
Multiracial School (1971-1978), started under ATEPO but continued under NAME (AME/5/1/2) 
NAME: New Approaches to Multiracial Education (1978-1980) - (AME/5/1/3). 
Multiracial Education (1980-1985) - (AME/5/1/4). 
Newsletter ARENA: Anti-Racist Education News (1984-2004) - (AME/5/1/5). 
NB: The first 4 issues of this were published under the National Association for Multiracial Education but this was primarily a National Antiracist Movement in Education publication (see below).
 
 
National Antiracist Movement in Education (NAME) (1984-2004):
 
Development of the National Antiracist Movement in Education:
In 1984, NAME changed its title to the National Antiracist Movement in Education in order to focus on racism in society and the education system. This followed a debate which started up within the organisation around 1980 and moved steadily "from what might be called radical liberation to liberal radicalism" (p. 8 Anti-Racist Education: The Three O's by Chris Mullard (NAME pamphlet 1984 AME/5/2/8). Several years of tension followed between advocates of 'multicultural' and 'antiracist' approaches in education. Many of the publications issued during the mid to the late 1980s reflect both sides of the debate, for example NAME on Swann (1985); the NAME conference report titled Antiracist Education in White Areas (1987); and Mainstream Curricula in a Multicultural Society, published following a joint project with the Further Education Unit (1989). 
The controversial change of name may well have contributed to the decline in NAME membership, from over 1500 members in more than 30 branches in England, Wales and Scotland in the early 1980s to less than 100 by the year 2000. Another contributing factor was a greater awareness of the need for race equality in the education system and in society in general. Because of the decline in membership, NAME formed itself into a smaller, centrally led pressure group during the 1990s. The group focused on responding to government white papers and consultations, OFSTED publications plus standards and codes of practice put forward by the Commission for Racial Equality. 
Annual conferences continued to be held (usually in April or May) to allow discussion of current issues, followed by the AGM, where the National Executive Committee was elected. However, the cancellation of the 1995 NAME conference generated a signed proposal from 2 members of the Committee suggesting that a marketing subcommittee be constituted to help generate more income for the Movement. The last NAME conference to be held was on 8 May 1999, titled 2000 AD - Whose Millennium? Cultural Imperialism or an Opportunity for Anti-racist Celebration? A joint conference between NAME and SCSC [Second City; Second Chance] took place in 2000, titled Social Exclusion and Pupil Support (SIPS); Minority Perspective. NAME AGMs continued between 2000 and 2003. 
A decision was taken to close NAME down from July 2004. A final AGM was held on 3 July 2004 and an Administration Committee was set up to carry out any outstanding business. Meetings were held on 2 October 2004 and 22 January 2005. The few remaining members completed a survey of Race Equality Policies in Schools, conducted voluntarily by the Administrative Committee, with the survey report issued in January 2006 (AME/5/4/2).
 
Membership of the National Antiracist Movement in Education: 
NAME continued to offer 4 types of membership: full (individual); student; institutional; and affiliate. There was a broad representation of minority ethnic communities in NAME, whose perspectives played an increasingly significant part in forming the policies of the organisation, especially from the mid-1980s to early 1990s.
 
Aims and Objectives of the National Antiracist Movement in Education:
NAME declared itself an anti-racist organisation "combating racism in society in general (employment, housing allocation, career opportunities, law enforcement, social services) and in the education system in particular (inappropriate exam criteria, inadequate teaching materials, teachers unprepared to widen the curriculum to include non-European cultures)." (AME/5/4/2). However, NAME rejected the view that race relations and multiracial education should be seen in political terms, and anyone involved labelled a political, rather than an educational, activist.
The following aims appear inside the back cover of the NAME on Swann publication (1985):
"NAME strives to develop strategies for combating racism within education. For example, it encourages the development of antiracist teaching materials and methods which challenge individual and institutional racism throughout the education system; tries to prevent racist legislation from reaching the statute book and campaigns against such legislation already there.
NAME accepts that fighting racism within education is linked to the general struggle against racism. A commitment to this struggle entails actively striving against racism in our place of work and our personal lives.
NAME, through its network of local branches, works to extend the level of awareness of its members and all their colleagues. By improving the resources and expertise available to teachers we seek to bring about an improvement in education for all." (AME/5/4/2)
The constitution was revisited on a regular basis, usually at the annual AGM. By 1989, the fight against racism within education stood side by side with the need "to achieve justice for black people and other oppressed groups in our places of work and personal lives" and " to be active in opposing those practices, attitudes, procedures and conditions which are racist and unfairly discriminatory"(Branch Pack - AME/1/4/2).  
 
Journals and Newsletters issued by the National Antiracist Movement in Education: 
Newsletter ARENA (1984-2000) - (AME/5/1/5). 
NB: The first 4 issues of this were published under the National Association for Multiracial Education but this was primarily a National Antiracist Movement in Education publication. 

 

Custodial History:

NAMERAP (NAME Research and Archive Programme) was formed in 2006 by a number of ex-members of NAME, most of whom had served as officers on NAME's National Executive Committee, with the intention of compiling a NAME archive as a basis for research. The archive was later gifted to the George Padmore Institute. 
The material forming the majority of the archive collection was transferred from 3 members of the Committee. Permission was given to amalgamate the 3 sets of files into one collection. Additional material is accruing.
The collection includes one box file full of material transferred to NAME from Samidha Garg. This includes a file belonging to John Rowe, Official, NUT Education Department (AME/1/1/1). Also an envelope of documents (AME/1/1/2) addressed to Madeleine Lake was sent with a covering letter from Samidha Garg, Principal Officer (Race Equality and International Relations), Education, Equality and Professional Development, NUT on 16 July 2009. The NUT files have been catalogued in one sub-series in the order found.

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 NASS

Date range:

1979-2005

Description

The National Association of Supplementary Schools (NASS) was formally set up in October 1987 to unite and guide the work of Black Supplementary Schools nationally. NASS had grown out of the Black Education Movement (GB 2904 BEM) and Black Parents Movement (GB 2904 BPM) active since the late 60s to secure improvements in the education of Black children.

Admin history:

The National Association of Supplementary Schools (NASS) was formally set up in October 1987 to unite and guide the work of Black Supplementary Schools nationally. NASS had grown out of the Black Education Movement (GB 2904 BEM) and Black Parents Movement (GB 2904 BPM) active since the late 60s to secure improvements in the education of Black children.
 
NASS elected officers at the Inaugural Meeting on 18 October 1987 were: 
Chairman: John La Rose; Vice Chair: Valentino Jones; Secretary: Mavis Milner-Brown; Assistant Secretary: Anthea Thorpe; Treasurer: Andrew Johnson; Assistant Treasurer: Sam Robin-Koker; Public Relations Officer: Gordon de la Mothe.
 
Based on the principle of self-reliance and self-help, NASS had a membership fee of £20, and its motto was "We are our own educators". Its key aims were:
 
(a) To provide guidance and support to community groups wishing to establish new supplementary schools.
(b) To influence governmental and Local Educational Authorities policies to introduce changes in mainstream school curriculum and practices.
(c) To promote partnerships between parents, mainstream schools and supplementary schools.
(d) To build a resource unit to assist in the dissemination of relevant information to parents, teachers and young people.
 
The funding contribution made by the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) enabled affiliated NASS members to develop courses on Black history, culture and identity alongside national curriculum subjects. This extended provision enabled the development of Black community and youth services, which was instrumental in the building of skills and self-confidence of young Black people.
 
The abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) in 1989 by the then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher impacted on the work of NASS and its members in an important way, as its projects were funded by the ILEA. 
 
By the 1990s, the formal role of NASS was weakened, even though correspondence and documents relating to various black educational issues continued to be received and collected beyond the year 2000.
 
The Fonds consists of records accumulated by John La Rose and other NASS members. It includes letters, minutes, reports, flyers, brochures, notes and newspaper articles.

Custodial History:

The material in this collection was gifted to the George Padmore Institute by John La Rose.

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 NTW

Date range:

1962-1967

Description

The following material relates to the Negro Theatre Workshop, otherwise known as NTW. The collection consists of programmes, photographs and documents relating to theatrical and musical productions staged during the most active period of NTW (1964 -1967) together with administrative documents, correspondence and financial records.

Admin history:

The Negro Theatre Workshop was established in London in 1961 with the object of maintaining continuous productions of dramas, revues and musicals, so as to give negro artists experience and writers a chance to see their work performed and, in so doing, to develop and improve standards amongst negro artists and technicians in every branch of the theatre.
(Tanya Morgan - doc NTW/3/1/5). The founding members included Pearl Connor-Mogotsi together with Lloyd Reckord, Bari Johnson, Horace James, George Brown, Bobby Naidoo, Nina Baden-Semper, Tony Cyrus and Ena Cabayo. 
 
As an ensemble of professional and amateur actors, directors and writers, the NTW performed original works in community centres, town halls, churches and cathedrals up and down the country as well as representing the United Kingdom at the First World Festival of Negro Arts in Dakar (Senegal).
 
The driving force behind the NTW was Pearl Connor-Mogotsi who, as Administrator and Honorary Secretary used her energy, commitment and contacts to forge links with a broad range of organisations, individuals and movements such as the Movement for Colonial Freedom, War on Want, West Indian Standing Conference, The Church Army, and The Council for British African Relations. The NTW had  an impressive list of Patrons including The Archbishop of Canterbury, Joan Littlewood, Sir Laurence Olivier and Sir Learie Constantine. On the Board of Trustees were The Earl of Listowel, Andrew Salkey, Christian Simpson and David Pitt  and the NTW was  supported by major figures in show business such as Sidney Poitier, Spike Milligan and Tony Richardson.
 
Initially NTW's activities were run by an Organising Committee of Pearl Connor (Hon. Secretary), June Baden-Semper (Assistant Secretary), Tanya Morgan (Treasurer) and June Leach (Assistant Treasurer) with Christian Simpson of the BBC as Artistic Co-ordinator together with the actors and theatre directors Bari Johnson and Horace James as Additional Organising Committee Members.With the support of Michael Slattery, who arranged for  the NTW to have free use of the Africa Centre for rehearsals, a number of productions - many touring - were organised between December 1964 and December 1965. These included Bethlehem Blues, The Dark Disciples and The Prodigal Son. Most of these productions were performed in churches throughout London because they offered their facilities free of charge. However in January 1966 The Prodigal Son was performed  at Lewisham Town Hall and Hackney's Baths Hall and a BBC television production of The Dark Disciples, subsequently selected as the British entry for the First World Festival of Negro Arts in Dakar (Senegal),  was broadcast at Easter 1966. 
  
In December 1965, at the behest of their legal advisor, Anthony Steel, the position of the NTW was formalised and it was registered as an Educational Trust whose Trustees 'shall hold the Trust Fund....for the  promotion and encouragement of  the study, commissioning and public performance of plays, musical drama and other forms of theatrical enterprises by the Trust which shall provide opportunities for actors and actresses and other performers of Negro and of any other race to participate.......' (Clause 3 of the Trust Deed; doc ref NTW/3/1/3).
 
At the inaugural meeting of the Negro Theatre Workshop Trust on 10 March 1966, chaired by George Lamming, the Management Council and a number of committees and sub committees were formally constituted.
 
Throughout its life NTW's development was restricted by lack of funds and a permanent base. Negotiations for an annual grant from the Arts Council, Trusts and charities were handicapped by their lack of a permanent home and performance space. For some time negotiations with the GLC for a lease to occupy  Wilton's Music Hall looked promising but in the end came to nothing.
 
Although the NTW was comparatively short lived, it was a seminal organisation in several ways. Through its productions it helped to train numerous actors, dancers, writers and directors; built the reputations and raised the profiles of many in the profession and in this way enabled them to obtain their equity cards. 

Custodial History:

The collection was gifted to the George Padmore Institute by June Guiness, nee Leech, who was deeply involved with the Negro Theatre Workshop from its early days.  For June Leech "they were happy and interesting days but, of course, quite grim for the artistes themselves as work opportunities  were not thick on the ground." [letter, dated 4th January 2007, accompanying gift agreement to the George Padmore Institute.]

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 NDC

Date range:

Jun 1977-Dec 1978

Description

Leading Kenyan novelist Ngugi wa Thiong'o was arrested in Nairobi in December 1977. The Pan African Association of Writers and Journalists, based in London, set up the Ngugi Defence Committee. They were joined by John La Rose, Pat Haward and a number of other activists based in Britain and worked alongside Amnesty International, who had declared Ngugi a Prisoner of Conscience. They all remained active until Ngugi was released in December 1978.

This collection includes an international petition to free Ngugi, press cuttings about the arrest and detention of Ngugi and a selection of letters written during the campaign. It also includes literary reviews of Petals of Blood, which was published just months before Ngugi was detained.

Admin history:

Leading Kenyan novelist Ngugi wa Thiong'o was arrested in Nairobi in December 1977. The Pan African Association of Writers and Journalists, based in London, set up the Ngugi Defence Committee.  They were joined by John La Rose, Pat Haward and a number of other activists based in Britain and worked alongside Amnesty International, who had declared Ngugi a Prisoner of Conscience. They all remained active until Ngugi was released in December 1978.
 
This collection includes an international petition to free Ngugi, press cuttings about the arrest and detention of Ngugi and a selection of letters written during the campaign. It also includes literary reviews of Petals of Blood, which was published just months before Ngugi was detained.

Custodial History:

This collection has been gifted to the George Padmore Institute by Pat Haward, who was Secretary to the Ngugi Defence Committee.

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 CCH

Date range:

1967-1968

Description

The following material was collected by John La Rose during his visit to Cuba to attend the Cultural Congress of Havana.
The collection is split into material sent to John before the Congress, and material collected during and after the Congress. The bulk of the collection contains extracts of the papers delivered during the Congress (divided by Commission).
There are also some newspapers, mainly Gramma collected by John that relate to the Congress along with other leaflets from cultural organisations in Havana.

Admin history:

On the 4-11 January 1968 the Cultural Congress of Havana was held in Cuba as "a meeting of intellectuals from all the world to discuss problems of Asia, Africa and Latin America." This year was also designated as the Cuban 'Year of the Heroic Guerrilla'.
 
The Congress gathered together over 400 intellectuals: artists, writers, economists, scientists, sociologists, technicians, athletes, musicians, philosophers, doctors, film-makers, ethnologists, journalists and numerous other 'intellectual workers' from over 70 countries to discuss issues faced by Asia, Africa and South America.  
 
Over 150 papers were presented on the theme of 'Colonialism and Neo-colonialism in the Cultural Development of Peoples' with topics covered by 5 commissions: 
Culture and National Independence
The Integral Growth of Man
The Responsibility of Intellectuals with Respect to the Problems of the Underdeveloped World
Culture and Mass Media
Problems of Artistic Creation and of Scientific and Technical Work
 
All sessions took place at the Hotel Habana Libre and each delegate had the opportunity to take part in the Commission of their choice in addition to attending various official Congress function. The delegates were also given the chance to investigate the transformation, particularly cultural, of Cuba since the revolution of 1959.
 
The opening speech was made by Dr Osvaldo Torrado (President of the PCC) and each Commission set their own resolution. The final resolution of the Congress was on the topic of Vietnam, with the closing speech made by Fidel Castro.
 
John La Rose, Andrew Salkey and C.L.R. James attended the Congress. They received an invitation after two Cuban writers, Pablo Armando Fernandez and Edmundo Desnoes attended an informal Caribbean Artists Movement (CAM) meeting at the home of Orlando Patterson in 1967. 
 
They arrived a week before it started and stayed on afterwards. C.L.R. James celebrated his 67th birthday (on the 4th January) during the Congress, which was marked by a special lunch for 40 guests including Aimé Césaire and René Déspestre and a delegation from the American Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
 
La Rose, Salkey and James attended Commission Three: The Responsibility of Intellectuals with Respect to the Problems of the Underdeveloped World and challenged the basic assumptions of the Congress, with James arguing that all intellectuals should be discouraged. La Rose proposed that the term 'Latin America' should be abolished where it was applied to a cultural definition of peoples in the South American continent, Central America and the Caribbean.
 
La Rose also criticised the omission of English speaking members of the Caribbean as the 'Third World' had been defined as 'Asia, Africa and Latin America.' At a later meeting La Rose argued that the delegates who gathered to discuss the problems faced by the Third World were not representative of the countries which were being discussed.
 
During the Congress La Rose sought out a group of young Afro-Cuban writers, film-makers and socio-ethnological researchers who were interested in the Caribbean. These young Cubans were not invited to attend the Congress but were given a chance to put their points of view forward at a special forum some weeks earlier. 
 
La Rose and Salkey organised an 'informal' session in a down-town theatre to discuss the issue that he had put forward in Commission Three. Chaired by La Rose, the session was attended by amongst others Aimé Césaire and C.L.R. James along with Cubans Rogelio Martinez Furé and Nancy Morejón.
 
The Congress became the focus of two public sessions of CAM, held on 5 April and 4 May 1968, particularly as Cuba held a special interest since the Revolution in 1959. The first session included talks from C.L.R. James and John La Rose who discussed their observations of the Congress from their own personal and political points of view. The second session was led by Irving Teitelbaum, a British human rights lawyer and Andrew Salkey.
 
Compiled using 'The Caribbean Artists Movement 1966-1972: A Literary and Cultural History' by Anne Walmsley, 1992; 'Congres Culturel de la Havane, published by the Instituto del Libro, Janvier 1968 and 'Voices of National Liberation' by Irwin Silber [ed], 1970.

Custodial History:

Gifted to the George Padmore Institute by John La Rose. Found within briefcase owned by John La Rose, which he took to the Congress.

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 LRA

Date range:

1940s-2010s

Description

The following collection comprises the personal papers of John La Rose (1927-2006), late founding Chair of the George Padmore Institute and founder of New Beacon Books, Britain's first black publishing house, bookshop and international book service. John La Rose (JLR) is considered to have been one of the most important activists in Black British and Caribbean history. John La Rose died in 2006 and he bequeathed his personal papers to the George Padmore Institute.
For further biographical details about John La Rose, please see the John La Rose Collection (GB 2904 JLR) listed under the Collections menu.
For further information on New Beacon Books, see the essay 'New Beacon Books - the pioneering years' by Dr. Rush Bush, available on the George Padmore Institute's website.

The Personal Papers of John La Rose include personal correspondence files, notebooks, the majority of JLR's own manuscripts, family photos, audio and audio-visual material. This is supplemented by files of contextual material gathered by JLR, plus examples of posters and artwork of interest to him. The collection ends with tributes and tribute events surrounding JLR's funeral in 2006.

The catalogue has been divided into 10 areas or sub-fonds:
LRA/01: Personal Correspondence and Topic Files (1950s-2000s)
LRA/02: Notebooks (1966-2005)
LRA/03: Manuscripts (1950s-2010s)
LRA/04: Posters and Artwork (1960s-2000s)
LRA/05: Photographs (c.1940s-2000s. Plus small number of historic family photos from c.1900).
LRA/06: Contextual Material: Topics of Interest (1970s-2000s)
LRA/07: Contextual Material: Caribbean, South and North America (1950s-2000s)
LRA/08: Contextual Material: Africa, Asia and South Pacific (1970s-2000s)
LRA/09: Audio and Audio-Visual Material (1966-2009)
LRA/10: Funeral, Tributes, Tribute Events (1998-2007)

Each sub-fonds is described in more detail in the Administrative History.

Much of the material complements the other archives held at the George Padmore Institute as John himself was closely involved with the organisations and activities covered by collections such as the Caribbean Artists Movement (GB 2904 CAM); Black Parents Movement (GB 2904 BPM); and the International Book Fairs of Radical Black and Third World Books (GB 2904 BFC).

Admin history:

The following collection comprises the personal papers of John La Rose (1927-2006), late founding Chair of the George Padmore Institute and founder of New Beacon Books, Britain's first black publishing house, bookshop and international book service. John La Rose (JLR) is considered to have been one of the most important activists in Black British and Caribbean history. John La Rose died in 2006 and he bequeathed his personal papers to the George Padmore Institute. 
For further biographical details about John La Rose, please see the John La Rose Collection (GB 2904 JLR) listed under the Collections menu.
For further information on New Beacon Books, see the essay 'New Beacon Books - the pioneering years' by Dr. Rush Bush, available on the George Padmore Institute's website. 
 
The Personal Papers of John La Rose include personal correspondence files, notebooks, the majority of JLR's own manuscripts, family photos, audio and audio-visual material. This is supplemented by files of contextual material gathered by JLR, plus examples of posters and artwork of interest to him. The collection ends with tributes and tribute events surrounding JLR's funeral in 2006. Further details are given below:
 
Personal correspondence and topic files (LRA/01): 
Arranged alphabetically, these 1114 files were created by John La Rose (1927-2006) and cover individuals, organisations and topics. They contain correspondence and some ephemeral material (newspaper cuttings, leaflets, booklets) from the 1950s to 2006, with a few items added between 2006-2007 covering tributes and tribute events for John La Rose following his death. The files reflect John La Rose's wide circle of friends, friendships and interests and provide many insights into the concerns of the time. 
The letters reflect John's slightly dilatory correspondence technique. When he wrote he often thought carefully about what he wanted to say and so this took time. These letters contain gems of ideas. However, John was also busy with his many interests - publishing, bookselling, political and cultural activities - so he did not always have time to respond as quickly as some people would want. There are often complaints from his correspondents that they have not had an answer to their letter(s).
A substantial amount of correspondence concerns John's interest in publishing, his decision to set up the New Beacon publishing house (or maisonette as he preferred to call it) with the assistance of Sarah White in 1966 and its later expansion into bookselling. There are files of correspondence with individual authors, artists and illustrators, and publishing companies.
John corresponded with people from the Caribbean, Africa, the USA, South America, France, India as well as in the UK. He was also interested in numerous organisations, both in the UK and abroad, and these are present in these files. There are also files for topics of interest. Some of the topics may cross-reference to the contextual material found under LRA/06 - LRA/08.
The files were found in a run of filing cabinets and we have decided to preseve the A-Z arrangement favoured by John La Rose.
 
Notebooks (LRA/02):
John La Rose never kept a regular diary. But he always had a notebook to hand (usually a spiral reporter style notebook), sometimes more than one on the go, and nearly always one close to the phone.
Many of these notebooks contain little sustained writing. Much writing is half-finished, fragmentary, and in note form. A substantial amount of the collection details only names and contact details of those involved in the events to which the notebooks refer. However, spanning much of La Rose's life in Britain, these notebooks hold details on most of the major activities, events and campaigns in which he was involved.
 
Manuscripts (LRA/03):
As a publisher John La Rose was always interested in what people were writing and as a publisher he received numerous manuscripts and was asked to be a judge for various writing competitions. New Beacon Books received many more manuscripts than it could ever hope to publish itself either for financial or practical reasons. Even at the height of its activity as a publisher New Beacon never published more than eight new books in a year.  A number of the manuscripts it received did get published elsewhere. There are other manuscripts whose authors are difficult to trace. And then there are manuscripts of writings submitted for various competitions where John was one of the judges.
There are also manuscripts of John's own writing. He did not write large books but he did write numerous essays, articles and tributes; he gave interviews and speeches. These all reflected his wide interests, serious analysis, original thinking, imagination and hope. Many of these were published during his lifetime - mainly in magazines, newspapers, journals and anthologies. John often sent out such pieces to people he knew and clearly had in mind the possibility of publishing them in an anthology. Unfortunately, this never got done in his lifetime but a small anthology was produced by New Beacon Books and the George Padmore Institute in 2014 titled 'Unending Journey: selected writings'. The title was one chosen by John himself as it was on the front of one of several files in which he had begun to put together a number of articles he was interested in publishing. Other similar writings are catalogued and digitised but have not as yet been republished.  
Finally, but not included in the catalogue as yet, are numerous drafts, notes, poems. These will form part of the accruing collection in the future.
Please note that New Beacon Books' own publication files are held separately in the New Beacon archives and are not yet available for research.
 
Posters and Artwork (LRA/04):
John La Rose appreciated and enjoyed the creativity of painters and sculptors. He used his friend from Trinidad, Art Derry, to design the logo for New Beacon Books as well as the cover designs for many of New Beacon's first titles. Original art work for later titles included paintings by Errol Lloyd and John Hendrickse. John visited exhibitions and artists' studios, he bought their work when he could and had many original pieces in his house. He was also interested in the increasing public use of black images from the 1960s onwards. Each Christmas he would collect any cards or calendars that had black images and file them as part of his archive and to show how things were changing (see also LRA/01/0169).
The posters he collected represented his cultural and political interests, both activities that he had been involved in himself or ones that he was interested in or supported from a distance.
 
Photographs (LRA/05):
The materials in this section are by no means all the photos in John La Rose's collection. A selection was made to represent different aspects of his life and interests - his family, friends, the people he met, activities - and there are also more formal photos of John taken for particular occasions.
 
Contextual Material (LRA/06 - LRA/08):
John La Rose did not always have the time (or space) to file material of interest to him, especially topic related material, so it would be put into a box with a general subject heading - French West Indies; Police; Education etc, the idea being that it could be then sorted more carefully at a later date. For this reason the documents contained in the contextual material sections can cross reference with those in the run of correspondence and topic files catalogued under LRA/01.
Where possible, the original box titles have been preserved in the catalogue structure. The majority of the boxes related to specific countries or regions.
 
Audio and Audio Visual (LRA/09):
John La Rose was very aware how important it was to record contemporary activities for the information of future generations. Starting with the Caribbean Artists Movement in the 1960s through to the GPI in the 2000s, he always tried to make sure that these organisations with which he was involved made as full an audio record as possible of their activities. He was also always interested in receiving any audio or audio visual records from other activities and events. When he was interviewed or gave a speech, John always wanted to receive a copy of the taped interview or speech for his own archives. Because of his interest in music and poetry he also collected numerous vinyl records, cds, videos and dvds over the years. The current Music and Poety series (LRA/09/14) contains material produced primarily by friends and/or people he knew and respected. 
 
Funeral, Tributes and Tribute Events (LRA/10):
John La Rose died from a heart attack on 28 February 2006. His funeral was held on 13 March at the New Testament Church of God, Wood Green, attended by over 1000 people. It was followed by his burial at the St Pancras and Islington Cemetery.  
Many written tributes were sent to the family, the George Padmore Institute and New Beacon Books in the days and months following John's death. These were both by letter and by email, both from people and institutions in the UK and those abroad, some published in newspapers and journals, others personal.
Numerous tribute events were organised to John, both big and small, in the immediate years following his death. They reflected his wide range of friends and contacts and the international spread of his ideas and influence. The tributes ranged from a commemoration in Trinidad held at the Oilfields Workers Trade Union just a few weeks after he died, through to a one day programme at the South Bank marking the first anniversary of his death and the 40th anniversary of New Beacon Books, a concert in the Camden Centre, a tribute in Glasgow, a BBC4 radio programme celebrating his discussions round the kitchen table, as well as numerous smaller meetings, film shows, discussions and events.
 

Custodial History:

Personal papers bequeathed to the George Padmore Institute by John La Rose, with the exception of the following: material relating to a) John La Rose's funeral, tributes and tribute events gifted by the La Rose family; b) the publication of 'Unending Journey: selected writings' (New Beacon Books/George Padmore Institute 2014) gifted by John La Rose Trust.
The LRA collection is accruing.

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 BFC

Date range:

1970-2005

Description

The following material is taken from, or relates to, the International Book Fairs of Radical Black and Third World Books which took place between 1982 and 1995. There were 12 International Book Fairs in total, held annually from 1982-1991, and then biannually in 1993 and 1995. London venues were chosen on each occasion. From year 4 onwards (1985), International Book Fairs and events also took place in Manchester (1985-1991; 1995), Bradford (1985-1993), Leeds (1993; 1995) and Glasgow (1993; 1995). The Caribbean Peoples International Bookfair and Bookfair Festival (1987-1988; 1992) was a related event organised by the Oilfields Workers' Trade Union (OWTU) in Trinidad.

The founders of the International Book Fairs were New Beacon Books, Race Today Publications and Bogle L'Ouverture Publications. All three were experienced in radical black publishing and in international bookselling. All three organisations had also been working closely together since 1975 when the Black Parents Movement had been formed in North London. All three were members of the Alliance of the Black Parents Movement, Black Youth Movement and Race Today Collective [see GB 2904 BPM] and had been active in many campaigns, including the New Cross Massacre Action Campaign [see GB 2904 NCM].

John La Rose (New Beacon Books) and Jessica Huntley (Bogle L'Ouverture Publications) became Joint Directors, and an Organising Committee was formed to plan and oversee each International Book Fair and Book Fair Festival. They were aided by dedicated volunteers who helped to co-ordinate all aspects of the event.

The International Book Fairs succeeded in bringing together both national and international participants, especially from the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Central America, the U.S., Germany, France and Belgium. People came, not only to exhibit, order and distribute books but also to take part in an accompanying programme of Book Fair Festival forums and events, which included readings of poetry and prose or a theatrical production, a concert and usually a film evening.

The collection comprises:
BFC/01: First International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1982

BFC/02: Second International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1983

BFC/03: Third International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1984

BFC/04: Fourth International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1985

BFC/05: Fifth International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1986

BFC/06: Sixth International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1987

BFC/07: Seventh International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1988

BFC/08: Eighth International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1989

BFC/09: Ninth International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1990

BFC/10: Tenth International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1991

BFC/11: Eleventh International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1993

BFC/12: Twelfth International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books: 1995.
Includes material relating to plans for the Thirteenth International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books in 1997 which never took place, John La Rose announcing the cessation of the Book Fairs in their established form due to his retirement.

BFC/13: Caribbean Peoples International Bookfairs and Bookfair Festivals: 1987-88; 1992

BFC/14: Book Fairs - General Material: 1980s-1990s

BFC/15: A Meeting of the Continents: 2005

Admin history:

The International Book Fairs of Radical Black and Third World Books took place between 1982 and 1995. There were 12 International Book Fairs in total, held annually from 1982-1991, and then biannually in 1993 and 1995. London venues were chosen on each occasion. From year 4 onwards (1985), International Book Fairs and events also took place in Manchester (1985-1991; 1995), Bradford (1985-1993), Leeds (1993; 1995) and Glasgow (1993; 1995). The Caribbean Peoples International Bookfair and Bookfair Festival took place in 1987-1988 and 1992. This was a related event organised by the Oilfields Workers' Trade Union (OWTU) in Trinidad. For further details of venues and related events, see 'Venues' below.

The founders of the International Book Fairs were New Beacon Books, Race Today Publications and Bogle L'Ouverture Publications. All three were experienced in radical black publishing and in international bookselling. All three organisations had also been working closely together since 1975 when the Black Parents Movement had been formed in North London. All three were members of the Alliance of the Black Parents Movement, Black Youth Movement and Race Today Collective [see GB 2904 BPM] and had been active in many campaigns, including the New Cross Massacre Action Campaign [see GB 2904 NCM].

John La Rose (New Beacon Books) and Jessica Huntley (Bogle L'Ouverture Publications) became Joint Directors, and an Organising Committee was formed to plan and oversee each International Book Fair and Book Fair Festival. They were aided by dedicated volunteers who helped to co-ordinate all aspects of the event.

The International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books was introduced as
"a meeting of the continents for writers, publishers, distributors, booksellers, artists, musicians, film makers and the people who inspire and consume their creative productions" (Letter of invitation to the First International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books 1982 - GB 2904 BFC/01/02/01/01).
The International Book Fairs succeeded in bringing together both national and international participants, especially from the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Central America, the U.S., Germany, France and Belgium. People came, not only to exhibit, order and distribute books but also to take part in an accompanying programme of Book Fair Festival forums and events.

Each International Book Fair would typically last for 3 days, running from Thursday to Saturday inclusive, and would be held a few weeks before Easter. The Book Fair was surrounded by an accompanying Book Fair Festival, which consisted of forums, readings of poetry and prose or a theatrical production, a concert and usually a film evening. The International Book Fair and Festival combined would last for about 7-10 days, depending on the year and venue. Both Book Fair and Festival were designed to compliment each other. Although the forums differed from year to year, there were recurring cultural, social and political themes such as publishing, women's writing, education and approaches to collective action. Major forums would be repeated at different venues, for example in Manchester and Bradford, although the panel of speakers would often change, thus generating a different debate with a fresh audience on each occasion.

Exhibitions of photographs, documents or artwork served as a backcloth to each International Book Fair. Workshops were also held for school children, with the opportunity to interview authors, listen to readings and discuss literature. The background music accompanying the typical 3 day Book Fair in London was provided by The Peoples War Sound System, formed in 1975 by Michael La Rose. Close associations with the Carnival Movement led to the formation of the Peoples War Carnival Band in 1983.

The International Book Fair Festivals were inspired by the earlier forums, talks and readings of the Caribbean Artists Movement (1966-1972) - see collection GB 2904 CAM. There was a strong political impetus driven by former events, such as the 1945 Pan African Congress held in Manchester which laid the foundations for post world war independence movements and there was also a strong tie with trade unions, for example black workers groups and the Oilfields Workers' Trade Union in Trinidad. All this created the momentum for radical black activity and debate, both nationally and internationally. The International Book Fairs were dedicated to progressive thought, creative expression and independence. In the words of the Organising Committee, the Book Fair tradition had always "..advocated non-sectarian, radical and revolutionary discussion and action in the direction of socialism and mass democracy.." (Statement issued by the Organising Committee of the International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books Feb 1997 - see GB 2904 BFC/12/01/01/07). Three Book Fair Festival events, a workshop: Racism Fascism Nazism Racial Attacks - the European Response (London 1990), the forum: Racism, Fascism and Xenephobia in Europe: The Struggle Against It (London 1991) and a Day Conference: Bigotry, Racism, Nazism and Fascism in Europe: Strategies for Change (London 1993) were tied to the European Action for Racial Equality and Social Justice alliance (see collection GB 2904 EAC).

An innovation from the Eleventh International Book Fair and Book Fair Festival 1993 was that certain events were intended to take place prior to the Book Fair Festival week. These events were organised jointly with, for example, the Southall Monitoring Group and Tabula Rasa; the Islington Black Workers' Group and European Action for Racial Equality and Social Justice; the Black Parents' Movement and New Beacon Books. There was also a tour organised for Abdul Alkalimat starting 12 Mar 1993 for his new book How to Read Malcolm X. The tour took place in different parts of England prior to the Book Fair.

Funding:
There was a policy not to actively seek grants to fund the International Book Fairs because of the desire to maintain independence. Therefore all participants chose to come to the Book Fairs using their own resources as there was no money available to finance travel and subsistence. Participants were frequently offered accommodation in people's houses, rather than accruing hotel expenses. Publishers and distributers were charged a modest fee for exhibiting books and advertising in the souvenir brochure but this was only to cover expenses. A team of dedicated volunteers helped to co-ordinate all aspects of the event. Andrew Salkey recognised that great things could be achieved with very little when he noted that "Free-blooming and remarkably beautiful flowers also grow in dessert sand" (Andrew Salkey: extract from a message of support and solidarity in advance of the First International Book Fair - see GB 2904 BFC/01/04/03/01).

Venues:
The First International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books was held at Islington Town Hall, the Second Book Fair at Lambeth Town Hall and the Third at Acton Town Hall. Each of these venues represented the base of New Beacon Books, Race Today Publications and Bogle L'Ouverture Publications respectively. From the Fourth Book Fair onwards, the Camden Centre became the permanent venue.

The International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books was not only confined to London. From the Fourth Book Fair onwards, events took place in Manchester, Bradford, and then Leeds. In 1990 James Kelman took part in an evening of International Prose Readings at the Ninth Book Fair. He subsequently joined the International Book Fair Organising Committee and established the sister Scottish Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books, held in 1993 and 1995.

Preparation of a Typical International Book Fair and Book Fair Festival:
Each Book Fair and Book Fair Festival would follow similar administrative and structural patterns. A Call message would be sent out during the preceding October or November followed by a more detailed preliminary programme and publicity during the January of the following year. Letters of invitation were sent out to potential participants for forums, poetry readings and other Festival events. Anyone wishing to exhibit books and other material during the Book Fair would be asked to complete and return an application form with payment. There was also the opportunity to advertise in the souvenir brochure for a modest fee.

Each publisher/distributer was allocated a set amount of space on a table or stall, sold in 2 ft amounts. The occupants of the stalls would, inevitably, try to gain extra space from neighbours. The layout of the stalls was meticulously planned each year to minimise the risk of any disputes breaking out between rival publishers who might otherwise have found themselves placed side by side. Applications to exhibit books could also be turned down by the Book Fair Organising Committee, a frequently cited reason being that the International Book Fair was "a Publishers' Fair and not a Book Shop Fair"(GB 2904 BFC/10/05/01/03).

Twelfth International Book Fair and Beyond:
Over time, two of the three organisations involved with running the Book Fair - Bogle L'Ouverture and Race Today - withdrew from the Organising Committee. Others joined in, such as Griot Media (formerly Griot International Books), Education for Liberation, LKJ Records and Books, and Longsight Press. However, by 1995, the majority of the organising work was left to New Beacon Books.

In his 'Welcome' message to the Twelfth International Book Fair, John La Rose looked forward to the Thirteenth International Book Fair in 1997 (see GB 2904 BFC/12/04/02/01). However, this was never to take place (see below). In the tradition of the Book Fair Souvenir Brochures issued every year, the Opening Address from the previous year was printed in the brochure for the following year (except during the earliest brochures). The Opening Address by Pearl Connor-Mogotsi at the Twelfth Book Fair was therefore never published in this way, although a transcript exists (see GB 2904 BFC/12/05/01/01).

In Feb 1997 the Organising Committee of the International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books issued a statement announcing that John La Rose, Director and co-founder, had taken the decision to retire and it was felt that the Book Fair in London could not continue in its existing form. Although this may have been the trigger for change, it was not the sole reason: "the Committee has already begun, and is continuing with extensive discussions about the restructuring and reorganising that we ourselves need to carry out in order to continue the Book Fair tradition and spirit in new conditions in the contemporary world" (GB 2904 BFC/12/01/01/07). The "new conditions" alluded to the fact that increased pressures at work left little time for participation. The International Book Fairs could no longer count on the presence of more mainstream publishers due to cuts in staffing levels. Schools were evolving and teachers no longer had the time to organise an outing for children to the Book Fair during the school day. Volunteers became increasingly engaged in other ventures and could take less time off. The International Book Fair could also be seen as a victim of its own success as it had advanced the cultural and political needs of the participants and exhibitors, to the point where the Book Fairs were no longer seen as indispensable.

The demise of the International Book Fair was met with regrets and new ideas were put forward to continue the traditions of the event, for example the holding of regular forums or conferences in London similar to the Book Fair Festivals but on a smaller scale. Publishing documents from the history of the Book Fair was also suggested. The development of the George Padmore Institute was conceived in the spirit of the International Book Fairs and was described as "an educational library and research centre housing materials relating to the black community in Britain and continental Europe. The Institute will have an independent radical vision and outlook, and a regular programme of talks, seminars, forums and other activities connecting the Caribbean, Africa, Europe, North America and Asia" (GB 2904 BFC/12/01/01/07). Such events continue today and have been supplemented by an archive and a publishing programme.

The Caribbean Peoples International Bookfair and Bookfair Festival:
The Caribbean Peoples International Bookfair and Bookfair Festival took place in Trinidad and Tobago in 1987, 1988 and 1992. This was a related event organised by the Oilfields Workers' Trade Union (OWTU) in Trinidad and its Publishing House, Vanguard Publishing Co. Ltd, in association with New Beacon Books and Race Today Publications.
The First Caribbean Peoples International Bookfair and Bookfair Festival ran from 21 Jun-5 Jul 1987 and John La Rose opened the Bookfair at Palm's Club, San Fernando, Trinidad on 27 Jun (GB 2904 BFC/13/01/05/01). The year 1987 was a significant date as it marked the fiftieth anniversary of the birth of the Oilfields Workers' Trade Union during the Jun 1937 revolt which signalled the emergence of the modern Caribbean.
The Second Caribbean Peoples International Bookfair and Bookfair Festival 1988 was split between two venues, taking place 19-23 Oct in San Fernando and 26-30 Oct in Port of Spain. The Third Caribbean Peoples International Bookfair and Bookfair Festival was held in Trinidad and Tobago from 2-19 Nov 1992. This was organised by the Vanguard Publishing Company in association with Classline Publishing Company and Banyan Limited of Trinidad and Tobago, and New Beacon Books.
The Caribbean Bookfairs followed a similar pattern to that of the International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books, namely a bookfair for the display and sale of books, plus story-telling and other performances with a literary and cultural focus aimed at children. The Bookfair Festival comprised a series of cultural performances such a dance, drama, kaiso, steelband, poetry and music. There were also forums and discussion, a film festival and exhibitions of artwork. Publishers, writers and performing artists from the Caribbean, the Americas, Europe, Africa and the Indian sub-continent were invited to participate.
Arrangements were made with British West Indian Airways (BWIA) to airfreight books for the Bookfair to Trinidad from various collection points. Publishers in Britain and Europe could send books via New Beacon Books, associates of the Caribbean Peoples International Bookfair and the Oilfields Workers' Trade Union.

A Meeting of the Continents:
For further information see the book 'A Meeting of the Continents: The International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books - Revisited: Histories, Memories, Organisation and Programmes 1982-1995'. Edited by Sarah White, Roxy Harris and Sharmilla Beezmohun. Published by New Beacon Books in 2005 for the George Padmore Institute. The photographs and plates used for the production of this book were drawn from the International Book Fair archives collection and have been included under GB 2904 BFC/15.

Related material: Many of the participants in the International Book Fairs of Radical Black and Third World Books had also been involved with the Caribbean Artists Movement (1966-1972): see collection GB 2904 CAM. Three Book Fair Festival events, a workshop: Racism Fascism Nazism Racial Attacks - the European Response (London 1990), the forum: Racism, Fascism and Xenephobia in Europe: The Struggle Against It (London 1991) and a Day Conference: Bigotry, Racism, Nazism and Fascism in Europe: Strategies for Change (London 1993) were tied to the European Action for Racial Equality and Social Justice alliance (most active during the period 1990-1993): see collection GB 2904 EAC.

Custodial History:

The International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books collection was gifted to the George Padmore Institute by John La Rose (1927-2006).

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 JLR

Date range:

1952-1996

Description

Ephemeral material collected by John La Rose

This fonds consists of some of the material collected by John La Rose between the 1950s and the 1980s. Selected items from the 1990s are also included. The material chosen here covers political and cultural trends during the period, especially in the UK and Caribbean.

The JLR fonds is made up of published material, correspondence, and publicity material. The catalogue structure corresponds to the boxes in which the material was collected over the years. The 8 sub-fonds (UK Community Relations, UK Culture, UK Society and Politics, Africa, Caribbean, Cuba, East - covering the Middle East, Asia and Australasia - and North America) provide a starting point for research.

The material has been catalogued by bundle, file, or by individual publication.

Within each of the Caribbean, Africa, East, and North America sub-fonds, the material is organised into series corresponding to countries. Within the UK and Cuba sub-fonds, material is organised into series corresponding to the type and location of the producers of the records.

Within each sub-fonds there are also series for journals and/or newspapers, apart from the UK and Caribbean sub-fonds, whose journals and newspapers are located in collections GB 2904 JOU and GB 2904 NEW respectively.

All runs of journals and/or newspapers are currently incomplete, and the GPI Archive only holds one issue of some publications; please check the extent field. Often an organisation's records will be catalogued in GB 2904 JLR, for example publicity and organisational material produced by the West Indian Students Union, while any journals or newsletters, in this case the 'WISU Newsletter', is catalogued in GB 2904 JOU.

Researchers are advised to note the GPI Archive's other collections, including the Caribbean Artists Movement (GB 2904 CAM) and the New Cross Massacre Action Committee GB (2904 NCM), in both of which John La Rose was an active participant.

Related Material: GB 2904 JOU - often an organisation's records will be catalogued in the collection GB 2904 JLR, while any journals or newsletters produced by the oranisation are catalogued in GB 2904 JOU. Where this occurs, material has been cross-referenced.

Material relating to Eric and Jessica Huntley can also be found in 'The Huntley Collections' held at the London Metropolitan Archives, references LMA/4462 (Bogle-L 'Ouverture Press Limited) and LMA/4463 (Huntley, Eric and Jessica: Personal).

Admin history:

Biography:
John La Rose was born in Arima, Trinidad, in 1927.  At nine he won a scholarship to St Mary's College, where he later taught before becoming an insurance executive.  He also taught in Venezuela.  He was an executive member of the Youth Council in Trinidad and produced their radio programme, 'Voice of Youth'.  In the mid-1950s he co-authored with the calypsonian Ramond Quevedo - Atilla the Hun - a pioneering study of calypso entitled Kaiso: A Review, republished in 1983 as Atilla's Kaiso.
In the 1940s John La Rose helped to found the Workers Freedom Movement and edited their journal Freedom.  He was an executive member of the Federated Workers Trade Union, later merged into the National Union of Government and Federated Workers.  He became General Secretary of the West Indian Independence Party and contested a seat in the 1956 General Election for the party.  He was also involved with the Oilfields Workers Trade Union, becoming their European representative from 1962 onwards.
John La Rose arrived in Britain in 1961. In 1966 he founded New Beacon Books, the first Caribbean publishing house, bookshop and international book service.  Growing up in a colonial society in the Caribbean made him acutely aware that colonial policy was based on a deliberate withholding of information from the population.  There was also a discontinuity of information from generation to generation.  Publishing, therefore, was a vehicle to give an independent validation to one's own culture, history and politics - a sense of self - and to make a break with discontinuity.
In 1966 John La Rose, along with the Jamaican writer and broadcaster Andrew Salkey and the Barbadian poet and historian Edward Kamau Brathwaite, co-founded the Caribbean Artists Movement, providing a platform for Caribbean artists, poets, writers, dramatists, actors and musicians (see GB 2904 CAM).  In 1972/73 he was Chairman of the Institute of Race Relations and Towards Racial Justice.
John La Rose was involved in the Black Education Movement from the late 1960s, particularly in the struggle against banding, and the placing of West Indian children in schools for the educationally sub-normal.  He founded the George Padmore Supplementary School for West Indian children in 1969 and helped found the Caribbean Education and Community Workers Association.  In the 1980s he was instrumental in setting up the National Association of Supplementary Schools, and was its Chairman for a time (see GB 2904 BEM).
In 1975, after a black schoolboy was assaulted by the police in Haringey, John La Rose and concerned parents founded the Black Parents Movement to combat the brutalisation and criminalisation of young blacks, and to agitate for youth and parent power and decent education.  The Black Parents Movement, in alliance with the Race Today Collective and the Black Youth Movement, became one of the most powerful cultural and political movements organised by blacks in Britain (see GB 2904 BPM).  The alliance formed the New Cross Massacre Action Committee in response to the New Cross fire which resulted in the death of 14 young blacks, and mobilised 20,000 black people and their supporters in March 1981 to protest the death of the young people and the failure of the police to conduct a proper investigation.  John La Rose was the Chairman of the New Cross Massacre Action Committee and gave tremendous support to the bereaved families (see GB 2904 NCM).
John La Rose was also part of many organisations focusing on international concerns.  In 1982 he helped to found Africa Solidarity, supporting the struggle against dictatorship and tyranny in Africa, and he also became Chairman of the Committee for the Release of Political Prisoners in Kenya, also founded in 1982.  In response to the rise in fascism and xenophobia, he helped to found European Action for Racial Equality and Social Justice in the late 1980s, bringing together anti-racists and anti-fascists from Britain, Belgium, Italy, France and Germany.
One of John La Rose's greatest achievements was the International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books (1982-95), organised jointly with Bogle L'Ouverture Books and Race Today Publications.  He was joint director with Jessica Huntley of the Book Fair and from 1984 its sole director.  John La Rose was the editor at New Beacon Books and of their journal, New Beacon Review, and published two volumes of his own poetry, Foundations (1966) and Eyelets of Truth Within Me (1992).  He also did some filmmaking in the 1970s.
The George Padmore Institute was established in 1991 and chaired by John La Rose.  The Institute continues the traditions and methods of work that New Beacon Books and the organisations connected with it have developed since 1966.
John La Rose died on 28 February 2006.  He is part of a Caribbean tradition of radical and revolutionary activism whose input has reverberated across continents.

Custodial History:

The material in this collection was gifted to the George Padmore Institute by John La Rose (1927-2006).  The collection is accruing and more deposits are expected over time.