National Antiracist Movement in Education (NAME)

Collection Ref No.:

GB 2904 AME

Date range:

1960-2006

Description

The following material is taken from, or relates to, the National Antiracist Movement in Education (1985-2004) otherwise known as NAME, and the organisations which preceded it, dating back to the 1960s. NAME was a voluntary organisation solely concerned with race equality and schooling. Its origins can be traced to c.1965 with the birth of ATEPO - the Association(s) of Teachers of English to Pupils from Overseas. In Spring 1969, individual ATEPOs came together to form the Federation of ATEPOs (FATEPO). The name was then changed to the Association(s) for the Education of Pupils from Overseas [keeping the same ATEPO acronym].
In 1973 a group from the Federation created the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME) following concerns from members that the Association was not participating sufficiently in national affairs. The change was also aimed at increasing financial stability. The structure grew to become London NAME overseeing several regional branches, around 40 in number by March 1983.
In 1984, NAME changed its title to the National Antiracist Movement in Education [keeping the same acronym] in order to focus more specifically on racism in society and the education system. This was seen by some as a controversial move, sparking a debate between multiculturalism and antiracism and may have contributed to the steady decline in membership from over 1500 members in England, Wales and Scotland in the early 1980s to less than 100 by the year 2000. Because of the decline in membership, NAME formed itself into a smaller, centrally led pressure group during the 1990s, responding to government papers, OFSTED publications and similar. A decision was taken to close NAME down in 2004, leaving a few members to complete a survey of Race Equality Policies in Schools (commenced March 2004 and published 2006).

The collection comprises:

AME/1: Administration and Correspondence
AME/1/1: Joint Work: NUT Meetings and Administration
AME/1/2: Correspondence and Communications
AME/1/3: General Administration
AME/1/4: Membership

AME/2: Meetings and Briefings
AME/2/1: ATEPO Minutes
AME/2/2: NAME [National Association for Multiracial Education] Minutes
AME/2/3: NAME [National Antiracist Movement in Education] Executive Committee Papers

AME/3: AGMs and Conferences
AME/3/1: NAME AGMs and Conferences
AME/3/2: Other Conferences

AME/4: Reports, Responses and Consultation
AME/4/1: Responses to Government and Other Papers
AME/4/2: NAME Fieldwork
AME/4/3: Statements, Policies and Evidence

AME/5: ATEPO and NAME Publications
AME/5/1: ATEPO and NAME Journals and Newsletters
AME/5/2: Handbooks
AME/5/3: Branch Publications
AME/5/4: Other NAME Publications

AME/6: Regional Branches
AME/6/1: Hounslow

AME/7: Related Material
AME/7/1: External Publications
AME/7/2: Various Journals and Papers
AME/7/3: Gloucestershire County Council Education Department

AME/8: NAMERAP - NAME Research and Archive Programme

Admin history:

Summary:
The following material is taken from, or relates to, the National Antiracist Movement in Education (1985-2004) otherwise known as NAME, and the organisations which preceded it, dating back to the 1960s. NAME was a voluntary organisation solely concerned with race equality and schooling. Its origins can be traced to c.1965 with the birth of ATEPO - the Association(s) of Teachers of English to Pupils from Overseas. In Spring 1969, individual ATEPOs came together to form the Federation of ATEPOs (FATEPO). The name was then changed to the Association(s) for the Education of Pupils from Overseas [keeping the same ATEPO acronym]. 
In 1973 a group from the Federation created the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME) following concerns from members that the Association was not participating sufficiently in national affairs. The change was also aimed at increasing financial stability. The structure grew to become London NAME overseeing several regional branches, around 40 in number by March 1983. 
In 1984, NAME changed its title to the National Antiracist Movement in Education [keeping the same acronym] in order to focus more specifically on racism in society and the education system. This was seen by some as a controversial move, sparking a debate between multiculturalism and antiracism and may have contributed to the steady decline in membership from over 1500 members in England, Wales and Scotland in the early 1980s to less than 100 by the year 2000. Because of the decline in membership, NAME formed itself into a smaller, centrally led pressure group during the 1990s, responding to government papers, OFSTED publications and similar. A decision was taken to close NAME down in 2004, leaving a few members to complete a survey of Race Equality Policies in Schools (commenced March 2004 and published 2006).
Between 1971-2006 ATEPO and NAME produced a number of national publications, including a set of ATEPO booklets, 7 NAME handbooks, Teacher Education (1984), NAME on Swann (1985), Antiracist Education in White Areas: Conference Report (1987) and Race Equality Policies in Schools (2006). Four journals were issued: English for Immigrants (1967-1971); Multiracial School (1971-1978); NAME: New Approaches to Multiracial Education (1978-1980); and Multiracial Education (1980-1985) plus the newsletter ARENA: Anti-Racist Education News (1984-2004).
 
An overview of each organisation is given below:
 
ATEPO: the Association(s) of Teachers of English to Pupils from Overseas (1965-1969)/ the Association(s) for the Education of Pupils from Overseas (1969-1973):
 
For a detailed history of ATEPO, see the following documents:
The Work of ATEPO by Hugh Boulter (1971), (AME/5/2/1). 
For an assessment of the future of ATEPO written in 1973, see the journal Multiracial School Vol. 2 No. 2 (Spring 1973): p.35-38 (AME/5/1/2).
 
Foundation and Development of ATEPO: 
ATEPO began as a grass roots organisation in the mid 1960s. The London and Birmingham branches of ATEPO were formed c.1965 and have been described as "two of the largest conurbations....where the pressure of immigrant children first stimulated teachers to get together and discuss ways of meeting their new found problems" (The Work of ATEPO by Hugh Boulter, Leeds 1971 p.3 - AME/5/2/1). The addresses (Secretaries) for six Associations are listed in the first issue of the ATEPO journal English for Immigrants (Summer 1967): Bedford, Birmingham (Midlands), Bradford (West Riding), Coventry, Derby and London. Slough is mentioned in the news section. 
On 18 November 1967, members from Huddersfield, Birmingham, Bradford, Coventry, Derby and London attended a meeting at Bishop Lonsdale College in Derby where a decision was made to bring individual ATEPOs into a federal structure called the National Federation of Associations for the Teaching of English to Pupils from Overseas (FATEPO). The National Federation met three times a year (Spring, Summer and Autumn terms) and also published the English for Immigrants journal (AME/5/1/1).
Details about the newly formed FATEPO and also ATEFL (Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language) can be found in English for Immigrants Issue 2 Spring 1968 (AME/5/1/1). 
 
On 19 April 1969, the first conference of the National Federation was held in Walsall, followed on 3 May by an AGM in Birmingham where the Federation Constitution was ratified and the name of the Federation changed to the National Federation of Associations for the Education of Pupils from Overseas [keeping the same ATEPO acronym]. For further details, see English for Immigrants Vol. 2 Issue 3 Summer 1969 (AME/5/1/1). This change came about because of concerns over the use of the word 'English':
 "Some members feel that a very misleading idea of the functions of the various ATEPOs, and of this Journal, is given by stressing the language aspects of our interests to the exclusion of wider educational concerns." (English for Immigrants Vol. 2 No. 1 Autumn 1968 - AME/5/1/1).
The change of name was "simply a clearer indication to those outside the Associations of the continuing breadth of interests: it is intended to provide an umbrella title under which existing local ATEPOs may continue as 'Teachers of English' or not, as they wish, and to which new groups may affiliate under any label they choose" (English for Immigrants Vol. 2 No. 3 Summer 1969 - AME/5/1/1)
In 1971, Hugh Boulter comments that "[the] Association still remains, and one hopes always will remain, concerned with teaching English to non-English speaking pupils. Its field, however, is constantly widening - hence the change in name - and there has been a move more recently to become more generally concerned with the social as well as the strictly educational aspects of immigration." (The Work of ATEPO by Hugh Boulter 1971 p.3. - AME/5/2/1).
Between November 1968 and November 1971, the number of Associations grew significantly from 11 to 20. This was the result of an expansion programme which included a series of 1 day courses titled School and Community in areas unrepresented by ATEPO. More courses were planned for 1972-73. However, the positive expansion brought with it administrative problems and a rise in Secretarial and Executive expenses. 
A working party on the re-organisation of ATEPO was set up after the annual conference in Walsall in December 1972 to address a number of concerns. Members felt that the Association was not participating sufficiently in national affairs, although records show that ATEPO was already in contact with the Schools Council, the DES and unions such as the NUT. The Association was being given national responsibility but it was operating from a local base with insufficient administrative and financial support. The DES supported ATEPO with an annual grant of £500 for 3 years but this was due to run out in 1973.
It was noted that the source of income from subscription payments was poor as individual membership was low - about 150 members, compared with 85 institutional members - despite high turnout at meetings. ATEPO did not therefore have sufficient money coming in to sustain itself into the future.
The journal Multiracial School Vol. 2 No. 2 p.35-38 Spring 1973 (AME/5/1/2) gives a detailed assessment of the future of ATEPO and the option of changing its constitution from a Federation to a National Association. See below for details on the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME).
 
Membership of ATEPO:
Members of the Association represented different sections of education including infant, junior and secondary school teachers, lecturers and college students. ATEPO also looked outside of the classroom, encouraging advisers, administrators and Education Welfare Officers - essentially anyone working directly with students from overseas - to become members.
 
Aims and Objectives of ATEPO:
The Objects of Federation ratified at the AGM in Birmingham on 3 May 1969 were as follows:
"to co-ordinate the activities of the local Associations
to disseminate information
to promote interest in the education of pupils from overseas
to offer advice and services to, and co-operate with, other professional and educational organisations, Local Education Authorities, and Government bodies wherever possible
to provide opportunities for teachers to learn of and to develop new methods appropriate to multi-racial classes
to safeguard the interests of such pupils" (AME/2/1/1)
 
Journals issued by ATEPO: 
English for Immigrants (1967-1971): (AME/5/1/1)
Issued 3 times a year (Spring, Summer and Autumn) and published by the Oxford University Press. The first issue, dated Summer 1967, is described in the Editorial as "a development of the Bulletin produced by the London Association of Teachers of English to Pupils from Overseas at the beginning of this year" [1967] (Euan Reid, editor). The journal was to be "a national publication in which could appear news and information, accounts of good teaching practice, reviews of books and materials on the teaching of English to immigrants as well as on the relevant educational and social background" (Editorial - AME/5/1/1). 
 
Multiracial School (1971-1978): (AME/5/1/2)
Issued 3 times a year (Spring, Summer and Autumn terms). The first issue is dated Autumn 1971. Editor: Alan James. Published by Oxford University Press. NB: This journal continues under the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME) (see below). 
 
 
National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME) (1973-1984):
 
Development of the National Association for Multiracial Education:
A change came in 1973 when a group from ATEPO created the National Association for Multiracial Education (NAME). The decision was largely financial. Writing in December 1972, the Working Party on Reorganisation of ATEPO put forward 2 options: to seek annual grants from bodies such as the DES, or to revise subscriptions to make the Association self-sustaining. The latter was considered the best way forward so that the Association could become more independent and thus play a full part in national affairs as a free agent. "Whether we like it or not the issues that are relevant to our members and to the society that we are involved in promoting - a multi-cultural one - are inevitably controversial (West Indian children in ESN schools, testing, Ugandan resettlement). Any financial attachment is likely to be an embarrassment" (Working Party on Reorganisation of ATEPO (AME/2/1/1). 
Writing in Multiracial School Vol. 3 No. 1 Summer 1974, Alan James speaks of the association as:
"[having] achieved the objectives set at the Walsall conference in 1972, being transformed into an effective national organisation which can and should have a real influence at national and local levels - relying not on publicity-winning shock tactics, but on the pressure that can be exerted by people with experience, a wide range of expertise, and commitment to persist." (AME/5/1/2). 
The structure grew to become London NAME overseeing several regional Branches, around 40 in number by March 1983. NAME was primarily concerned with assisting teachers and advisors working in multiracial and multicultural environments, whether inside or outside the classroom. The Association provided information through publications and journals plus created opportunities to discuss and debate issues at local events and national conferences, held annually. NAME also lobbied local and national governments on issues of importance in the field of multiracial education. NAME worked with or alongside bodies such as ARTEN [Anti Racist Teacher Education Network] and NATE [National Association for the Teaching of English] in the development of courses and materials. 
The focal points of NAME were language skills, especially the use of mother-tongue as a medium of instruction; the curriculum and qualifications; the provision of and access to Teacher Education courses; monitoring employment in the Education Service; and ensuring access by teachers and parents to advice and information.
The organisation received no long-term financial support from central government or from local authority resources. Limited financial support in the form of grants, some from the DES, mostly covered the cost of producing publications. A three year grant from the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust led to the appointment of the first full-time General Secretary, Madeleine Blakeley, in 1978. Two fieldworkers, the Birmingham fieldworker Chris Orford and the national Fieldworker, Mary Baker, were funded by the Inner City Partnership and a grant from the CRE respectively (News of Name issue 1, Mar 1983 - AME/5/4/1). The National Association was financially dependent on the branches and each branch was asked to contribute a percentage of its annual subscription income. Between 1983 and 1984, a new charitable Trust called the National Council for Research and Development in Multiracial Education was planned, to be launched Spring 1985. This was sponsored by NAME in order to achieve charitable status (NAME was not a charity because of its campaigning role). The plan was to employ a fieldworker from Spring 1985 onwards to establish the Trust on a firm footing but grant applications to the Commission for Racial Equality failed due to a lack of available funds.
 
Membership of the National Association for Multiracial Education:
There were 4 types of membership under NAME: full (individual); student; institutional; and affiliate. Annual conferences were attended by up to 200 members and by the early 1980s there were more than 1500 members spread across England, Wales and Scotland. 
 
Aims and Objectives of the National Association for Multiracial Education: 
The general aim of NAME was "to play an active role in making the changes required in the education system which will further the development of a just multi-racial society."
The following aims were set out in the new constitution and ratified at Edgehill College of Education in Ormskirk on 14 April 1973:
"a) to encourage and co-ordinate the efforts of individual members working in education within a multi-racial society.
b) enable its membership to express its collective viewpoint on local and national affairs which relate to a multi-racial society
c) promote the teaching and development of language throughout the education system
d) ensure that full attention is given to the needs of linguistically disadvantaged children irrespective of nationality or origin
e) influence the curriculum of schools to reflect the multi-racial and multi-cultural aspects of our society
f) promote the interests of all children attending multi-racial schools"
 
However, by 1980, there are signs that the Association is beginning to reconsider its aims and objectives. A promotional leaflet c.1980 (AME/5/4/1) suggests that 
 "Minority ethnic groups are at a disadvantage in such areas of life as employment, housing and education". Moreover, "in spite of the efforts of many individuals working within it, the present education system tends to perpetuate injustice rather than to eliminate it ..." In May 1983, we find an announcement that the Aims leaflet has been rewritten (News of NAME - issue 2 May 1983 (AME/5/4/1). NAME now describes itself as follows:
"The National Association for Multiracial Education recognises the fact that racism both individual and institutional pervades all social, political and economic aspects of this country ... NAME, therefore, is an anti-racist organisation ..." (AME 5/4/1). Although issued under the National Association for Multiracial Education in May 1983, these rewritten aims underpin the National Antiracist Movement in Education (see below). 
 
Journals issued by the National Association for Multiracial Education:
Multiracial School (1971-1978), started under ATEPO but continued under NAME (AME/5/1/2) 
NAME: New Approaches to Multiracial Education (1978-1980) - (AME/5/1/3). 
Multiracial Education (1980-1985) - (AME/5/1/4). 
Newsletter ARENA: Anti-Racist Education News (1984-2004) - (AME/5/1/5). 
NB: The first 4 issues of this were published under the National Association for Multiracial Education but this was primarily a National Antiracist Movement in Education publication (see below).
 
 
National Antiracist Movement in Education (NAME) (1984-2004):
 
Development of the National Antiracist Movement in Education:
In 1984, NAME changed its title to the National Antiracist Movement in Education in order to focus on racism in society and the education system. This followed a debate which started up within the organisation around 1980 and moved steadily "from what might be called radical liberation to liberal radicalism" (p. 8 Anti-Racist Education: The Three O's by Chris Mullard (NAME pamphlet 1984 AME/5/2/8). Several years of tension followed between advocates of 'multicultural' and 'antiracist' approaches in education. Many of the publications issued during the mid to the late 1980s reflect both sides of the debate, for example NAME on Swann (1985); the NAME conference report titled Antiracist Education in White Areas (1987); and Mainstream Curricula in a Multicultural Society, published following a joint project with the Further Education Unit (1989). 
The controversial change of name may well have contributed to the decline in NAME membership, from over 1500 members in more than 30 branches in England, Wales and Scotland in the early 1980s to less than 100 by the year 2000. Another contributing factor was a greater awareness of the need for race equality in the education system and in society in general. Because of the decline in membership, NAME formed itself into a smaller, centrally led pressure group during the 1990s. The group focused on responding to government white papers and consultations, OFSTED publications plus standards and codes of practice put forward by the Commission for Racial Equality. 
Annual conferences continued to be held (usually in April or May) to allow discussion of current issues, followed by the AGM, where the National Executive Committee was elected. However, the cancellation of the 1995 NAME conference generated a signed proposal from 2 members of the Committee suggesting that a marketing subcommittee be constituted to help generate more income for the Movement. The last NAME conference to be held was on 8 May 1999, titled 2000 AD - Whose Millennium? Cultural Imperialism or an Opportunity for Anti-racist Celebration? A joint conference between NAME and SCSC [Second City; Second Chance] took place in 2000, titled Social Exclusion and Pupil Support (SIPS); Minority Perspective. NAME AGMs continued between 2000 and 2003. 
A decision was taken to close NAME down from July 2004. A final AGM was held on 3 July 2004 and an Administration Committee was set up to carry out any outstanding business. Meetings were held on 2 October 2004 and 22 January 2005. The few remaining members completed a survey of Race Equality Policies in Schools, conducted voluntarily by the Administrative Committee, with the survey report issued in January 2006 (AME/5/4/2).
 
Membership of the National Antiracist Movement in Education: 
NAME continued to offer 4 types of membership: full (individual); student; institutional; and affiliate. There was a broad representation of minority ethnic communities in NAME, whose perspectives played an increasingly significant part in forming the policies of the organisation, especially from the mid-1980s to early 1990s.
 
Aims and Objectives of the National Antiracist Movement in Education:
NAME declared itself an anti-racist organisation "combating racism in society in general (employment, housing allocation, career opportunities, law enforcement, social services) and in the education system in particular (inappropriate exam criteria, inadequate teaching materials, teachers unprepared to widen the curriculum to include non-European cultures)." (AME/5/4/2). However, NAME rejected the view that race relations and multiracial education should be seen in political terms, and anyone involved labelled a political, rather than an educational, activist.
The following aims appear inside the back cover of the NAME on Swann publication (1985):
"NAME strives to develop strategies for combating racism within education. For example, it encourages the development of antiracist teaching materials and methods which challenge individual and institutional racism throughout the education system; tries to prevent racist legislation from reaching the statute book and campaigns against such legislation already there.
NAME accepts that fighting racism within education is linked to the general struggle against racism. A commitment to this struggle entails actively striving against racism in our place of work and our personal lives.
NAME, through its network of local branches, works to extend the level of awareness of its members and all their colleagues. By improving the resources and expertise available to teachers we seek to bring about an improvement in education for all." (AME/5/4/2)
The constitution was revisited on a regular basis, usually at the annual AGM. By 1989, the fight against racism within education stood side by side with the need "to achieve justice for black people and other oppressed groups in our places of work and personal lives" and " to be active in opposing those practices, attitudes, procedures and conditions which are racist and unfairly discriminatory"(Branch Pack - AME/1/4/2).  
 
Journals and Newsletters issued by the National Antiracist Movement in Education: 
Newsletter ARENA (1984-2000) - (AME/5/1/5). 
NB: The first 4 issues of this were published under the National Association for Multiracial Education but this was primarily a National Antiracist Movement in Education publication. 

 

Custodial History:

NAMERAP (NAME Research and Archive Programme) was formed in 2006 by a number of ex-members of NAME, most of whom had served as officers on NAME's National Executive Committee, with the intention of compiling a NAME archive as a basis for research. The archive was later gifted to the George Padmore Institute. 
The material forming the majority of the archive collection was transferred from 3 members of the Committee. Permission was given to amalgamate the 3 sets of files into one collection. Additional material is accruing.
The collection includes one box file full of material transferred to NAME from Samidha Garg. This includes a file belonging to John Rowe, Official, NUT Education Department (AME/1/1/1). Also an envelope of documents (AME/1/1/2) addressed to Madeleine Lake was sent with a covering letter from Samidha Garg, Principal Officer (Race Equality and International Relations), Education, Equality and Professional Development, NUT on 16 July 2009. The NUT files have been catalogued in one sub-series in the order found.